The endogenous population growth of the black American community was sufficient to provide slaves for the new cotton lands of the early 19th century.After 1865 white-black relations were more surreptitious but continued nonetheless (e.g., Malcolm X’s mother’s father was white).
Furthermore, by principal components analysis, we found little evidence of genetic structure within the African component of ancestry in African Americans.I wouldn’t put too much weight in the closeness of the San and Mbuti on the plot, because you’re seeing only a two-dimensional view of the total genomic variation, the two largest dimensions as evaluated by looking at the total range of variation of genes among the set of individuals (European, African American and African) within the data set.The relationships may differ if you constrain the sample space of genetic variation to African genotypes only, and other dimensions may also indicate different relationships.Here are the estimates of ancestral quanta for African Americans by region against different potential ancestral groups.They had 136 African Americans, so I wouldn’t put too much weight on the interregional differences.Rather, individual African Americans exhibit a mix of African lineages in proportion to the various weights of sources in the slave trade. I have observed before that the vast majority of the ancestry of African Americans is likely colonial.Though a few African American communities, such as the Gullah of coastal South Carolina, preserve distinctive regional African folkways, by and large black Americans as a culture are American, and derive many of their distinctive aspects from elaborations on Anglo norms or a novel synthesis of African ones (in particular, it seems clear that black Americans have been strongly influenced by the two Southern British settler folkways in their speech and religion).Not too much (at least beyond a level of noise, and perhaps a few outliers).The two figures below are based on African genotypes within the African American population.Interestingly, in Henry Louis Gates Jr.’s Faces of America, all three of the people with black ancestry, two of whom clearly identified as African American, were more than 50% European in ancestry.* When it comes to African ancestry the affinity with the region of the west of the Bight of Benin seems clear if you view the data through a more granular lens.The Mandenka are from the western fringe of West Africa, while the Bantu are a linguistic group which seems to have emerged just to the east of Nigeria, and swept east and south with the spread of a particular agricultural lifestyle until pushed up against the Nilotic and Khoisan groups of East and South Africa respectively. Could it be that individuals exhibit variance by African region, as they do on European ancestry?