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Amino acid racemization dating of fossil bones

The amino acids combine with each other like the links of a chain to form a long protein chain.Proteins contain from 50 to several hundred amino acids.Later, Bada and his co-workers the rate of racemization in marine sediments under laboratory conditions was determined by heating sediments with sea water in sealed ampoules at various temperatures from 100° C to about 150° C over various lengths of time.The material was then hydrolyzed in 6 molar hydrocholoric acid (the material is hydrolyzed to break up the protein into free amino acids), and the extent of conversion of L-isoleucine to D-alloisoleucine was determined.All amino acids in proteins (except glycine) are L-amino acids.These amino acids spontaneously tend to slowly change to the D-form.

Investigation of amino acid racemization in fossil bones and teeth from the Olduvai Gorge region, Tanzania, indicates that aspartic acid racemization can be used to date samples which are less than ∼80,000–100,000 years old in this area.He was quoted as saying that he had discovered the basis of the method in 1968, and that it was so obvious and simple he was amazed it hadn't been discovered earlier.As a matter of fact, the basis of this method had been discovered earlier and had been reported in a series of papers published by Hare, Mitterer and Abelson in 1967, 1968, and 1969.When there is only a single asymmetric carbon atom, these two different forms are known as optical isomers.Chemically, there is very little difference between them, but biologically, there is as much difference as night and day.All of the amino acids which occur in proteins, except for glycine, which is the simplest amino acid, have at least one asymmetric carbon atom, and can exist as one of two possible stereoisomers.That is, the chemical groups attached to this particular carbon atom are all different and can be arranged in space in two different ways.Each amino acid has two chemical groups, an amino group and a carboxyl group, which can form chemical bonds with other amino acids.The amino group of one amino acid can combine with the carboxyl group of a second amino acid to form a "peptide" bond, and its carboxyl group can combine with the amino group of a third amino acid, and the chain can thus be extended indefinitely.The kinetics of racemization of isoleucine contained in bovine bone fragments has been studied in detail over the temperature range 100° to 148°C.These elevated temperature studies were used to evaluate the rate of racemization at the lower in situ temperatures at which bones are found in nature.

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