Another way of testing the concurrent validity of the BDS would be to examine its relation to muscle dysmorphia.
This has been suggested muscle dysmorphics have a distorted body image, see themselves as thin and puny even though they are actually large and muscular, and have a preoccupation with gaining muscle size and definition.
Although bodybuilding is a competitive sport, most people who describe themselves as bodybuilders do not actually compete.
refer to this phenomenon, but until recently it had not been empirically examined.
Objectives: To investigate the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the bodybuilding dependence scale and to investigate differences in bodybuilding dependence between men and women and competitive and non-competitive bodybuilders.
Methods: Seventy two male competitive bodybuilders, 63 female competitive bodybuilders, 87 male non-competitive bodybuilders, and 63 non-competitive female bodybuilders completed the bodybuilding dependence scale (BDS), the exercise dependence questionnaire (EDQ), and the muscle dysmorphia inventory (MDI).
As a very high level of commitment is clearly a prerequisite for becoming dependent on an activity, we hypothesised that competitive bodybuilders would score significantly higher than non-competitive bodybuilders on the three BDS subscales.
Sex differences are another important issue yet to be examined with regard to bodybuilding dependence.