Although additional investigation is needed to further explore how holism can be used to explain cultural differences, these results point to the richness of this new cultural value as a theoretical framework and suggest its potential for future investigations. industry partners included Canada, China, Mexico, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, South Korea, Taiwan, France and Saudi Arabia. When people involved in a conflict situation find themselves to be wrong, this style is often best used. H3: Holism will be negatively correlated with the conflict management styles of competition and avoidance. participants will prefer using conflict management strategies that show a higher concern for self. organizational employees will report a preference for using the competing and avoiding styles over other styles. Korean organizations and asked employees to fill it out during the months of June and July in 2008. Students who recruited survey participants received extra credit from their course directors.
The idea of holism as a frame for understanding cultural differences has received support in recent studies (Kim, Lim, Dindia, and Burrell 2010 p. Individuals who use this style easily give in to the demands of others because they want to be liked by others. H2: Holism will be positively correlated with the conflict management styles of accommodating, collaborating, and compromising. A total of 193 full time organizational employees participated in this study including 93 S. The survey items were translated and back-translated by two Koreans who were fluent in both Korean and English to assure functional equivalence of meaning (Brislin 1970 pp. Researchers brought hard copies of the survey to the selected S. data, undergraduate students enrolled in a large public Midwestern university in the U. were asked to request full-time employees to complete the survey online during the months of September and October in 2008. Korean respondents (M = 5.03, SD = .80, n = 90) showed significantly stronger holistic tendencies, t(179) = 14.40, p .005. Korean employees’ most preferred conflict management style was compromising, followed by collaborating or accommodating styles, and then followed by avoiding or competing styles. Preferences for Conflict Management Styles among S.
employees reported using the avoiding style significantly more than did S. Interestingly, there was no significant difference in reported preference for the competing style between the two cultures with neither culture favoring this style. employees, and higher scores on a holism measure were positively related to ratings of the collaborative style (S. These findings support and extend those found by previous research (Kim et al. 543-566) and provide additional early reinforcement for the holism value as a means for distinguishing and explaining cultural differences on communicative dimensions. sample, employees preferred using the avoiding or compromising styles the most, followed by the accommodating, collaborating, or competing style. In support of past research, our results showed that indeed, S. employees also ranked compromising as one of their most preferred strategies along with the avoiding style.
participants differ somewhat from previous studies that have shown competing to be one of the preferred styles of U.
employees, and higher scores on a holism measure were positively related to ratings of the collaborative style (S. People tend to use this style when they want to withdraw from conflict and side-step confrontation. 287-301) investigated different uses of management styles between Chinese and British executives. Anglo-Australians rated assertive styles higher and non-confrontational styles lower than Chinese students. 114-133) found that Japanese tended to value a collaborative strategy whereas U. participants displayed a preference for competitive strategies. 181-199) investigated conflict management preferences of S.
Koreans preferred collaborating, compromising, and accommodating styles, whereas U. Keywords: Increased globalization in the business environment is a motivating force behind many industries’ expansion of trading partners. Finally, the avoiding style arises when there is a low concern for both oneself and the other. 27-56) sampled Anglo-Australian and East Asian ethnic Chinese college students with work experience and found similar results. Third, we sought to examine relationships between culture and conflict management strategy preferences. Korean employees would prefer using conflict management strategies that show a high concern for others. H4: South Korean organizational employees will report a preference for using the compromising, collaborating, and accommodating styles over other styles. H6: South Korean organizational employees will report using the compromising, collaborating and accommodating styles significantly more than U. Survey respondents were randomly called to confirm their actual participation in the survey. Korean organizational employees would show more holistic tendencies than U.
Hopefully, this type of customized training would lead to increased learning, skill development, and knowledge transfer. First, the convenience sample selected for this study may not be representative of each culture. Second, this study did not investigate other factors that may play roles as mediating or moderating variables. employees, preferred collaborating, compromising, and accommodating styles, whereas U. employees preferred the avoiding style significantly more so than did S. Although additional investigative work is needed to confirm these findings and further explore how holism can be used to predict and explain cultural differences, these results point to the richness of holism as a theoretical frame and suggest its potential for future investigations. This study employed a new theoretical frame, holism, to distinguish cultural differences in conflict management strategy preference. The majority of studies have found that Easterners are less confrontational, less assertive, and more cooperative than Westerners (Ting-Toomey 1988 pp. Korean preferred style) and negatively related to ratings of the avoidant style (U. This style is also preferred when people find conflict uncomfortable (Thomas 1977 pp. A number of researchers have observed cultural differences in conflict management styles. Results showed that Chinese executives preferred less assertive strategies, such as compromising and avoiding behaviors, whereas their British counterparts preferred more direct styles such as collaborating and competing styles. 729-747) found that Chinese managers preferred avoiding styles whereas U. This study employed a new cultural frame—holism—to examine preferred conflict management styles of S. participants reported employing the avoiding conflict style significantly more than did the S. However, no significant difference was found regarding use of the competing style between the two cultures. Clearly, organizations are in the middle of an important transition as their environments become more and more globally diverse. However, investigations of holism’s efficacy are still in their infancy. Then, we introduce conflict and conflict management styles as ubiquitous communicative activities likely impacted by the cultural value of holism. A variety of theoretical perspectives have been proposed to explain cultural differences between the East and the West, including the frameworks of High-Low contexts (Hall 1969, 1976), Individualism-Collectivism (Hofstede 1980, 1991), and self-construals (Markus and Kitayama 1991 pp. Numerous scholars have adopted these frameworks to investigate cultural differences in various communication contexts (e.g., conflict management, relationship maintenance, among other contexts) and have greatly contributed to our understanding of cultural distinctions. The compromising style is positioned in the middle with moderate concerns for both oneself and others. participants also preferred the avoiding style more than did S. The current investigation expands on Lee and Rogan’s work by employing the cultural frame of holism to re-examine S. Employing a recently developed measure of holism (Kim et al. 543-566), this study investigated how holistic tendencies are related to choices of conflict management strategies. Secondly, we wanted to explore the relationship between holism and each of the conflict management styles. The first part of the survey measured individuals’ conflict management styles utilizing the Thomas-Killmann Conflict Mode Instrument [TKI] (Thomas and Kilmann 1974). Reliability for the holism items showed a Cronbach’s alpha of .92. We begin by explicating the foundational tenets of holism. Finally, we report results, and discuss the theoretical and practical implications of using holism to better understand global organizational conflict management. Individuals using this style view conflict as a problem to be solved and negotiate to achieve a positive solution for all involved in the conflict situation. organizational employees’ conflict management styles, and in so doing, to offer a theoretical explanation for any resulting differences. Participants’ Departments A survey that included measures of conflict management styles, holism, and demographics was used to collect data. Easterners (who are typically more holistic than Westerners) thus tend to be more integrative and oblique than their Western counterparts. 231-251) found that Japanese decision-makers employed more indirect and agreement-centered approaches whereas Americans used more direct and confrontational approaches. 58-70) found that Eastern cultures tend to make judgments of others based on an overall (holistic) impression rather than breaking down an individual’s qualities into separate attributes. Typically, people using this style dominate in discussion and seek to achieve their own goals. The total sample was comprised of 92 men (48.4 %) and 97 women (51.1 %), and the average age was 35.13 years (SD =11.82). Thus, relations pre-empt individual choices and determine the members’ roles in the society. Members are expected to work toward the goals of the whole, and individuals readily sacrifice their wants for the whole. Individual members work together, performing different tasks and roles that complement each other, in order to accomplish the larger group or societal objectives. The competing style is grounded in a high concern for oneself and a low concern for the other party. employees would report using the avoiding and competing styles significantly more than the S. MANOVA analyses indicated statistically significant differences in the conflict management styles between the two cultures, Wilks’ Lambda = .69, F(5,187) = 16.86, p = 4.03, SD = 3.16) and U. 922-934) Recently, a measure of holism was developed and used to examine S. The collaborating style employs a problem solving strategy that involves both a high concern for oneself as well as the other participant(s) in the conflict. Participants’ positions also varied from CEO to entry-level employees (Table 2). Korean employees would report using the compromising, collaborating, and accommodating styles significantly more than the U. Moreover, Eastern cultures view words as inseparable from the larger communicative context, the parties involved, and the relationships between them (Gudykunst and Kim 1984), and they place greater emphasis on context, relationships, and experience-based knowledge when speaking to others than on individual qualities (Masuda and Nisbett 2001pp. Such people stress winning a conflict at the expense of losing the relationship with the other person involved. On average, participants had 13.27 years of work experience (SD = 13.02) in various departments (see Table 1).