In Cambodia, the bombings drove the Khmer Rouge rebels toward fanatical leaders, who launched a murderous rampage when they took power in 1975. soil, in National Guard shootings or antiwar bombings. Embittered Shi’ite Muslim rebels responded with a suicide bomb attack on Marine barracks, and for years seized U. Syria and the Muslim rebels emerged victorious in Lebanon. The bombing raid killed civilians, and may have led to the later revenge bombing of a U.
accused its former ally of allowing drug-running in the country, though the drug trade actually increased after his capture. Over 2,000 Panamanians were killed in the invasion to capture one leader. forces against North Vietnam, and Communist rebels fighting to overthrow pro-U. dictatorships in South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. Over two million people were killed in the war, including 55,000 U. war planners made little or no distinction between attacking civilians and guerrillas in rebel-held zones, and U. “carpet-bombing” of the countryside and cities swelled the ranks of the ultimately victorious revolutionaries. CIA-trained Nicaraguan Contra rebels launched terrorist attacks against civilian clinics and schools run by the Sandinista government, and mined Nicaraguan harbors. US and UK forces occupy country and battle Sunni and Shi’ite insurgencies. North Korea is under the same Communist government today as when the war began. foreign policy on a collision course with Arab nationalists, often in support of the region’s monarchies. The CIA trained and harbored Cuban exile groups in Miami, which launched terrorist attacks on Cuba, including the 1976 downing of a Cuban civilian jetliner near Barbados. returned to its pre-World War II interventionary role in the Caribbean, directing the failed 1961 Bay of Pigs exile invasion of Cuba, and the 1965 bombing and Marine invasion of the Dominican Republic during an election campaign. military intervention is often counterproductive even if one accepts U. The same countries tend to reappear again and again on the list of 20th century interventions. Take the list of current regimes most singled out for U. attack, and put it alongside of the list of regimes that have had the longest hold on power, and you will find they have the same names. One of the most dangerous ideas of the 20th century was that “people like us” could not commit atrocities against civilians. Rather than solving the root political or economic roots of the conflict, it tends to polarize factions and further destabilize the country. demonization of an enemy leader, or military action against him, tends to strengthen rather than weaken his hold on power. “retaliated” not only against Osama Bin Laden’s training camps in Afghanistan, but a pharmaceutical plant in Sudan that was mistakenly said to be a chemical warfare installation. COMMON THEMES Some common themes can be seen in many of these U. Almost certainly more civilians would lose their lives in this tit-for-tat war on “terrorism” than the 3,000 civilians who died on September 11. If a country has the right to “end” a state that trains or harbors terrorists, would Cuba or Nicaragua have had the right to launch defensive bombing raids on U. The attacks of September 11 were not only a test for U. citizens attitudes’ toward minority ethnic/racial groups in their own country, but a test for our relationship with the rest of the world. This strategy tends to enflame rather than dampen a war or civil conflict, as shown in the cases of Somalia and Bosnia, and deepens resentment of the U. War fever tends to encourage the intolerant faction, but the faction only succeeds in its goals if the rest of the group acquiesces or remains silent.