KARNAS of Toronto, ON, Canada, in memory of his mother KSENA (SADIE) KARNAS (nee SZILIWSKI). FROM NOBLES TO PEASANTS: HISTORICAL ESTATES OF UKRAINIAN SOCIETY Having originated in the medieval period, the historical estates of Ukrainian society survived in various forms until the mid-19th century.
Each of these autonomous and closed social groups enjoyed certain rights or privileges and fulfilled various duties.
The southern group of dialects is divided into two subgroups: the more uniform southeastern dialects (central Dnieper dialects, Slobidska Ukraine dialects, and steppe dialects) and the southwestern dialects, which are highly differentiated and include South Volhynian dialects, Podilian dialects, Dniester dialects, Sian dialects, Bukovyna-Pokutia dialects, Hutsul dialect, Boiko dialect, Middle-Transcarpathian dialects, and Lemko dialects....
The preparation, editing, and display of the IEU entries about Ukrainians and the Ukrainian language were made possible by a generous donation from Professor JOSEPH A.
Today approximately one-quarter of all Ukrainians in the world live outside of Ukraine.Geographically, the Ukrainian language is classified with Russian and Belarusian as an East Slavic language.Actually, like Slovak, it occupies a central position: it borders on some West Slavic languages, and it once bordered on Bulgarian, a South Slavic language...Within its geographic boundaries the Ukrainian language is represented basically by a set of dialects, some of which differ significantly from the others.Generally, however, dialectal divisions in Ukrainian are not as strong as they are, for example, in British English or in German... The standard, or literary, version of the Ukrainian language evolved through three distinct periods: old (10th-13th centuries), middle (14th-18th centuries), and modern (19th-20th centuries).The Cyrillic alphabet (with certain modifications) is still used today in the Ukrainian, Russian, Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, and Serbian writing systems... Ukrainian dialects are classified into two basic groups--the northern (Polisian) and the southern dialects--between which there extends a wide belt of 'transitional' dialects.The northern dialectal group is subdivided into the east Polisian (east of the Dnieper River), the central Polisian (between the Dnieper and the Horyn River), the west Polisian (between the Horyn and the Buh River and Lisna River), and the Podlachian dialects.Membership in a given estate was hereditary, and mobility from one estate to another was difficult.Only the admission to the clerical estate, which was purely functional, was open.Learn more about the ethnocultural features of Ukrainians and the history and unique features of the Ukrainian language by visiting the following entries: UKRAINIANS.The East Slavic nation constituting the native population of Ukraine; the sixth-largest nation in Europe.