Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth were developed.The Peshwa's influence in India declined after the defeat of Maratha forces at the Battle of Panipat but Pune remained the seat of power.Mohandas Gandhi was imprisoned at the Yerwada Central Jail several times and placed under house arrest at the Aga Khan Palace between 19, where both his wife Kasturba Gandhi and aide Mahadev Desai died.After Indian Independence from the British in 1947, Pune saw enormous growth transforming it into a modern metropolis.
The breach in the Panshet dam and the resulting flood of 1961 led to severe damage and destruction of housing close to the river banks.
Research institutes of information technology, education, management and training attract students and professionals from India and overseas.
Several colleges in Pune have student-exchange programs with colleges in Europe.
Pune was prominently associated with the struggle for Indian independence.
In the period between 18, the city was a centre of agitation led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Bal Gangadhar Tilak.