Joshua assigned Hebron to Caleb from the tribe of Judah (Joshua -14), who subsequently led his tribe in conquering the city and its environs (Judges 1:1-20).
As Joshua notes, "the former name of Hebron was Kiryat Arba..." Following the death of King Saul, God instructed David to go to Hebron, where he was anointed King of Judah (II Samuel 2:1-4).
However, the restored Islamic (Mameluke) ascendancy was less tolerant than the pre-Crusader Islamic (Arab) regimes — a 1266 decree barred Jews (and Christians) from entering the Tomb of the Patriarchs, allowing them only to ascend to the fifth, later the seventh, step outside the eastern wall.
The surviving Jews fled to Beirut and did not return until 1533.
Jews continued to live in Hebron after the city's conquest by the Arabs (in 638), whose generally tolerant rule was welcomed, especially after the often harsh Byzantine rule — although the Byzantines never forbade Jews from praying at the Tomb.
The Arabs converted the Byzantine church at the Tomb the Patriarchs into a mosque.
Hebron is one of the most important marketplaces in the Palestinian Territories.
Numbers states that (Canaanite) Hebron was founded seven years before the Egyptian town of Zoan, i.e.